Medical Studies

Appendix

Warts

"A Random Controlled Trial to Compare the Effects of Two Home Treatments: Melaleuca Alternifolia and Salicyclic Acid (Salactol) on the Resolution Rates of Verrucae Pedis"

All Warts and Molluscum

"Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trials of Homeopathic Medicines in Warts and Molluscum Contagiosum"

Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch, Ringworm, Nail Fungus

"Anti-fungal Activity of the Components of Melaleuca alternifolia"

"Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Fungal Infections: A Systematic Review of Controlled Clinical Trials"

"Melaleuca alternifolia in the Treatment of Tinea pedis"

"Treatment of Toenail Onychomycosis with 2% Butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia Plant Extract in Cream"

Yeast, Candida Fungal Infection

"In-vitro Activity of Essential Oils, In Particular Melaleuca alternifolia Oil and Products Containing this Oil, Against Candida spp."

Strech Marks, Scars, and Bruising

"Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Properties of Helichrysum Italicum and Other Plant Extracts"

Eczema

"Proof of Efficacy of Kamillison(R) Cream (Chamomile Extract) in Atopic Eczema"

Scabies

"Acaricidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia" Scabies in Emergency Medicine: Treatment and Medication

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1, HSV-2) and Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

"Subjective Response to Lysine in the Therapy of Herpes Simplex"

Herpes Labialis (Cold Sores)

"Extract for Topical Treatment for Recurring Herpes Labialis"

Dermatophytosis of Animals - Fungal Ringworm Infections

"Evaluation of Topical Therapies for the Treatment of Dermatophyte-Infected Hairs for Dogs and Cats"

Demodectis (demodex) and Sarcoptes Scabies in Dogs and Cats

"Treatment Protocols for Demidicosis and Sarcoptes Infections: An Evidence-Based Review"

Warts

"A Random Controlled Trial To Compare The Effects Of Two Home Treatments: Melaleuca Alternifolia And Salicylic Acid (Salactol) On The Resolution Rates Of Verrucae Pedis"

James, Leisa, Dr.

Podiatry, University College Northampton April 2000

"Conclusions....A random controlled trial was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two home treatments: Melaleuca alternifolia and Salicylic acid (salactol) on the resolution rates of verrucae pedis and pain levels experienced when using a visual analogue scale. Ten subjects, (age range 16-45), with single plantar warts were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental treatment groups. Subjects received once-daily applications of either Salicylic acid (16.7%) or Melaleuca alternifolia (100%) for 12 weeks. Debridement and clinical assessment were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Statistical analysis using a parametric unrelated t test revealed that no significant difference could be identified (p>0.05) when using Salicylic acid or Melaleuca alternifolia for the treatment of verrucae pedis. Therefore the null hypothesis was accepted. Statistical analysis using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test identified that there was a significant difference (p>0.05) when comparing the pain levels experienced when using a visual analogue scale. This concluded that there was an overall significant pain reduction when treating verrucae pedis with Melaleuca alternifolia."

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All Wart Types and Molluscum

"DOUBLE BLIND PLACEBO CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS OF HOMOEOPATHIC MEDICINES IN  WARTS AND MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM"

The course of warts and Molluscum Contagiosum is unpredictable, peculiar and inconsistent therefore it is often difficult to evaluate the results of any treatment. The various modalities are available for the treatment of warts in various systems of medicine include electrocoagulation, cryosurgery1, curetage2, trichloracetic acid, silver nitrate, poddophyllin urea 3, formalin soaks 4, vitamin A acid application 5, calcium hydroxide solution soaks3, bleomycin local injection 6 and hypnosis 3,7. It is known that Homoeopathic drugs are very effective for the treatment of Warts/Molluscum contagiosa such as Thuja Occidentalis. Many cases and reports are available confirming the efficacy but no report is based on double blind study 8,9,10. In a study undertaken during 1986-8810 revealed that some of the homoeopathic medicines were found effective 75-90% in the treatment of different types of warts. Keeping in view the possibility of spontaneous remissions in warts it is desirable that a double blind placebo control trailed is conducted with the drugs found very useful in the treatment of warts/molluscum.

Conclusions:

  • The results of active drug group are far better than the placebo group. This again reconfirms the observation made in previous project report that homoeopathic medicines are quite effective in the treatment of warts and Molluscum contagiosum.
  • The improvement results of placebo group ( 19%) in this study under project 2 is significant as compared to those of 33.4% in the project 1. This clarifies the doubtful observation of carry over effects of homoeopathic treatment and signifies that probably homoeopathic medicines have no carry over effects in the treatment of warts and Molluscum contagiosum. Hence the effectivity of the indicated medicine can be perceived with in few days of its intake.
  • Among results of individual medicine, Thuja (plant extract found in Dermisil W) was found most useful drug for warts and Calcarea carbonicum in Molluscum contagiosum. The sample sizes of active drug group and placebo group in respect of Ruta amd Causticum are insufficient to comment on the efficacy of these medicines in the treatment of warts.

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Impetigo, Staphylococcus aureus

Antimicrobial activity of the major components of Melaleuca alternifolia.

Carson CF, Riley TV.

Department of Microbiology, University of Western Australia, Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands.

The antimicrobial activity of eight components of Melaleuca Alternifolia was evaluated using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Attempts were also made to overcome methodological problems encountered with testing compounds which have limited solubility in aqueous media. After assessing media with and without solubilizing agents, the disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of a range of micro-organisms to 1,8-cineole, 1-terpinen-4-ol, rho-cymene, linalool, alpha-terpinene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and terpinolene. While the disc diffusion method lacked reproducibility, it was considered useful as a procedure for screening for antimicrobial activity. Terpinen-4-ol was active against all the test organisms while rho-cymene demonstrated no antimicrobial activity. Linalool and alpha-terpineol were active against all organisms with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations of each component against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using a broth microdilution method. Modifications to this method overcame solubility and turbidity problems associated with the oil components and allowed the antimicrobial activity of each of the components to be quantified reproducibly. There was reasonable agreement between minimum inhibitory concentrations and zones of inhibition. These results may have significant implications for the future development of Melaleuca Alternifolia as a safe antimicrobial agent.

PMID: 7730203 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch, Ringworm, Nail Fungus

Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia.

Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV.

Discipline of Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Chemical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, Australia. khammer@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

AIMS: To investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia oil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Activity was investigated by broth microdilution and macrodilution, and time kill methods. Components showing the most activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum fungicidal concentrations of < or =0.25%, were terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, linalool, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, followed by 1,8-cineole. The remaining components showed slightly less activity and had values ranging from 0.5 to 2%, with the exception of beta-myrcene which showed no detectable activity. Susceptibility data generated for several of the least water-soluble components were two or more dilutions lower by macrodilution, compared with microdilution. CONCLUSIONS: All Melaleuca Alternifolia components, except beta-myrcene, had antifungal activity. The lack of activity reported for some components by microdilution may be due to these components becoming absorbed into the polystyrene of the microtitre tray. This indicates that plastics are unsuitable as assay vessels for tests with these or similar components. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study has identified that most components of Melaleuca Alternifolia have activity against a range of fungi. However, the measurement of antifungal activity may be significantly influenced by the test method.

PMID: 12969301 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Candida Fungal Infection

In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia oil and products carrying this oil, against Candida spp.

Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV.

Department of Microbiology, The University of Western Australia, The Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre, Nedlands.

The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including Melaleuca alternifolia oil, against the yeast candida was examined.

....Melaleuca alternifolia oil, was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v)... the Melaleuca alternifolia in the Dermisil AF exceeds the percentages necessary for minimum inhibition of both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida. The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species... again the concentration levels of Melaleuca alternifolia found in Dermisil AF exceeded the minimum concentrations.

Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%.

Tests on three intra-vaginal Melaleuca alternifolia oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated Melaleuca alternifolia oil, indicating that the Melaleuca alternifolia oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity and is a proper treatment for candida.

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Athlete's Foot

Melaleuca alternifolia in the treatment of tinea pedis.

Tong MM, Altman PM, Barnetson RS.

Dermatology Department, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW.

Melaleuca Alternifolia (an essential oil derived primarily from the Australian native Melaleuca alternifolia) has been used as a topical antiseptic agent since the early part of this century for a wide variety of skin infections; however, to date, the evidence for its efficacy in fungal infections is still largely anecdotal. One hundred and four patients completed a randomized, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of 10% w/w Melaleuca Alternifolia cream compared with 1% tolnaftate and placebo creams in the treatment of tinea pedis. Significantly more tolnaftate-treated patients (85%) than Melaleuca Alternifolia (30%) and placebo-treated patients (21%) showed conversion to negative culture at the end of therapy (p < 0.001); there was no statistically significant difference between Melaleuca Alternifolia and placebo groups. All three groups demonstrated improvement in clinical condition based on the four clinical parameters of scaling, inflammation, itching and burning. The Melaleuca Alternifolia group (24/37) and the tolnaftate group (19/33) showed significant improvement in clinical condition when compared to the placebo group (14/34; p = 0.022 and p = 0.018 respectively). Melaleuca Alternifolia cream (10% w/w) appears to reduce the symptomatology of tinea pedis as effectively as tolnaftate 1% but is no more effective than placebo in achieving a mycological cure. This may be the basis for the popular use of Melaleuca Alternifolia in the treatment of tinea pedis.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 1303075 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Nail Fungus

Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia plant extract in cream.

Syed TA, Qureshi ZA, Ali SM, Ahmad S, Ahmad SA.

Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco, USA. tasyed@itsa.ucsf.edu

The prevalence of onychomycosis, a superficial fungal infection that destroys the entire nail unit, is rising, with no satisfactory cure. The objective of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to examine the clinical efficacy and tolerability of 2% butenafine hydrochloride and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia oil incorporated in a cream to manage toenail onychomycosis in a cohort. Sixty outpatients (39 M, 21 F) aged 18-80 years (mean 29.6) with 6-36 months duration of disease were randomized to two groups (40 and 20), active and placebo. After 16 weeks, 80% of patients using medicated cream were cured, as opposed to none in the placebo group. Four patients in the active treatment group experienced subjective mild inflammation without discontinuing treatment. During follow-up, no relapse occurred in cured patients and no improvement was seen in medication-resistant and placebo participants.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10357864 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch, Ringworm, Nail Fungus

Herbal medicines for treatment of fungal infections: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials.

Martin KW, Ernst E.

Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, UK.

Traditional medicine has made use of many different plant extracts for treatment of fungal infections and some of these have been tested for in vitro antifungal activity. This systematic review evaluates antifungal herbal preparations that have been tested in controlled clinical trials. Four electronic databases were searched for controlled clinical trials of antifungal herbal medicines. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent reviewers and are reviewed narratively. Seven clinical trials met our inclusion criteria. Melaleuca Alternifolia preparations were tested in four randomized clinical trials and some positive outcomes were attributed to the intervention in all trials. Solanum species (two trials) and oil of bitter orange preparations (one trial) were compared with conventional treatments. In all cases encouraging results were reported. There are few controlled clinical trials of herbal antifungal medicines. The most thoroughly clinically tested is Melaleuca Alternifolia, which holds some promise. All herbal remedies require further investigation in rigorous clinical trials.

Publication Types:

  • Review

PMID: 15078424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Stretch Marks, Scars, and Bruising

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Helichrysum italicum and other plant extracts. Sala A, Recio M, Giner RM, Manez S, Tournier H, Schinella G, Rios JL. Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Universitat de Valencia, Spain. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the aerial part of Helichrysum italicum extracts have been established in various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental models. The results obtained on the acute oedemas induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) and ethyl phenylpropiolate in the mouse ear, by serotonin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the mouse paw, on chronic inflammation induced by repeated application of TPA in the mouse ear and on the delayed-type hypersensitivity induced by sheep red blood cells suggest that said anti-inflammatory activity is due to the effects of compounds expressed via a corticoid-like mechanism. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the extracts seems to be implicated in this anti-inflammatory activity, as the former inhibits enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation and has free-radical scavenger properties. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory activity of Helichrysum italicum can be explained by multiple effects, including inflammatory enzyme inhibition, free-radical scavenging activity and corticoid-like effects. PMID: 11902802 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Eczema

Proof of efficacy of Kamillosan(R) cream (chamomile extract) in atopic eczema.

Patzelt-Wenczler R, Ponce-Poschl E.

ASTA Medica AG, Weismullerstr. 45, D-60314 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Dr_Jeannette.Simon@astamedica.de

Kamillosan(R) cream contains chamomile extract as active principle manufactured from the chamomile sort Manzana which is rich in active principles and has been proved not to exhibit a chamomile-related allergen potential. For this reason Kamillosan(R) cream is suited for local therapy of atopic eczema. In a partially double-blind, randomized study carried out as a half-side comparison, Kamillosan(R) cream was tested vs. 0.5% hydrocortisone cream and the vehicle cream as placebo in patients suffering from medium-degree atopic eczema. After a 2-week treatment Kamillosan(R) cream showed a mild superiority towards 0.5% hydrocortisone and a marginal difference as compared to placebo.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase III
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10799352 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Scabies

Acaricidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia

In Vitro Sensitivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to Terpinen-4-ol

Shelley F. Walton, PhD; Melita McKinnon; Susan Pizzutto, BSc(Hons); Annette Dougall, BSc(Hons); Edwina Williams, BSc(Hons); Bart J. Currie, MBBS, FRACP, DTM&H 

Arch Dermatol. 2004;140:563-566.

Objective  To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei varhominis.

Design  In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment.

Setting  The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies.

Participants  Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies.

Interventions  Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals.

Main Outcome Measures  Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides.

Results  The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 µg/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed.

Conclusions  Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Melaleuca Alternifolia is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.

From the Menzies School of Health Research (Drs Walton and Currie, Mss McKinnon, Pizzutto, Dougall, and Williams), and Northern Territory Clinical School, Flinders University (Dr Currie), Darwin, Australia. The authors have no relevant financial interest in this article.

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Scabies in Emergency Medicine: Treatment & Medication

Author: Amy L McCroskey, MD, Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University Detroit Medical Center, Detroit Receiving Hospital Coauthor(s): Adam J Rosh, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Wayne State University/Detroit Receiving Hospital

For entire report from Medscape please click here

Herpes (HSV-1, HSV-2)

Antiviral activity of Melissa officinalis and other plant extracts against Herpes simplex virus type-2.

Allahverdiyev A, Duran N, Ozguven M, Koltas S.

Tropical Diseases Center, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae)and other plant extracts have been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-1, and HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis and other plant extracts contain anti-HSV-2 substances.

PMID: 15636181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Herpes (HSV-1, HSV-2)

Antiviral activity of Australian Melaleuca alternifolia and eucalyptol plant extracts against herpes simplex virus in cell culture.

Schnitzler P, Schon K, Reichling J.

Department of Virology, Hygiene Institute, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

The antiviral effect of Melaleuca alterfernolia (TTO) and eucalyptol (EUO) and other plant extracts against herpes simplex virus was examined. Cytotoxicity of TTO and EUO was evaluated in a standard neutral red dye uptake assay. Toxicity of TTO and EUO was moderate for RC-37 cells and approached 50% (TC50) at concentrations of 0.006% and 0.03%, respectively. Antiviral activity of TTO and EUO against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on RC-37 cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of TTO for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was 0.0009% and 0.0008% and the IC50 of EUO was determined at 0.009% and 0.008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Australian tea tree oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of TTO plaque formation was reduced by 98.2% and 93.0% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of EUO reduced virus titers by 57.9% for HSV-1 and 75.4% for HSV-2. Virus titers were reduced significantly with TTO, whereas EUO exhibited distinct but less antiviral activity. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of both essential oils, either cells were pretreated before viral infection or viruses were incubated with TTO or EUO before infection, during adsorption or after penetration into the host cells. Plaque formation was clearly reduced, when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oils prior to adsorption. These results indicate that TTO and EUO affect the virus before or during adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell. Thus TTO and EUO are capable to exert a direct antiviral effect on HSV. Although the active antiherpes components of Australian tea tree and eucalyptus oil are not yet known, their possible application as antiviral agents in recurrent herpes infection is promising.

PMID: 11338678 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Herpes Simplex (HSV1,2), Herpes Zoster (Shingles)

Subjective Response to Lysine in the Therapy of Herpes Simplex.

Walsh DE, Griffith RS, Behforooz A.

To test the effect of lysine supplementation on herpes infection, 1543 subjects were surveyed by questionnaire after a six-month trial period. The study included subjects with cold sores, canker sores, and genital herpes. Of these, 54% had been diagnosed and treated by a physician. The results showed that the average dosage used was 936 mg of lysine daily. Eighty-four per cent of those surveyed said that lysine supplementation prevented recurrence or decreased the frequency of herpes infection. Whereas 79% described their symptoms as severe or intolerable without lysine, only 8% used these terms when taking lysine. Without lysine, 90% indicated that healing took six to 15 days, but with lysine 83% stated that lesions healed in five days or less. Overall, 88% considered supplemental lysine an effective form of treatment for herpes infection.

PMID: 6423612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Herpes Labialis (Cold Sores)

Extract (Lo-701) for topical treatment of recurring herpes labialis.

Koytchev R, Alken RG, Dundarov S.

Cooperative Clinical Drug Research and Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany. ccdrd@drug-news.com

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out with the aim of proving efficacy of standardized balm mint cream [active ingredient: 1% Lo-701--extract from Melissa officinalis (70:1)] for the therapy of herpes simplex labialis. Sixty six patients with a history of recurrent herpes labialis (at least four episodes per year) in one center were treated topically; 34 of them with verum and 32 with placebo. The cream had to be smeared on the affected area four times daily over five days. A combined symptom score of the values for complaints, size of affected area and blisters at day 2 of therapy was formed as the primary target parameter. There was a significant difference in the values of the primary target parameter between both treatment groups: verum 4.03 +/- 0.33 (3.0); placebo 4.94 +/- 0.40 (5.0); values given are mean +/- SEM (median) of the symptoms score on day 2 of therapy. The tested formulation is effective for the treatment of herpes simplex labialis. The significant difference in the combined symptom score on the second day of treatment is of particular importance having in mind that the complaints in patients suffering from herpes labialis are usually most intensive at that time. In addition to the shortening of the healing period, the prevention of a spreading of the infection and the rapid effect on typical symptoms of herpes like itching, tingling, burning, stabbing, swelling, tautness and erythema, the balm mint cream has a further advantage. The different mechanism of action of the extract rules out the development of resistance of the herpes virus. Some indication exists that the intervals between the periods with herpes might be prolonged with melissa.

Publication Types:

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

PMID: 10589440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Dermatophytosis of Animals - fungal Ringworm infections

Evaluation of topical therapies for the treatment of dermatophyte-infected hairs from dogs and cats.

White-Weithers N, Medleau L.

Department of Small Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens 30602, USA.

Seven commonly used, topical antifungal products (i.e., lime sulfur, chlorhexidine, captan, povidone-iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and enilconazole solutions, and ketoconazole shampoo) were evaluated for their antifungal activity on Microsporum canis-infected hairs from dogs and cats in an in vitro study. Hairs were soaked or shampooed in each product for five minutes twice a week for four weeks. Of the seven products used in this study, lime sulfur and enilconazole solutions were superior in inhibiting fungal growth; no growth occurred on fungal cultures after two treatments with either product. Chlorhexidine and povidone iodine solutions were effective after four treatments, and sodium hypochlorite solution and ketoconazole shampoo inhibited fungal growth after eight treatments. Captan did not inhibit fungal growth during the test period.

PMID: 7634061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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Demodectosis (demodex) and Sarcoptes scabie infection treatment for cats and dogs.

Treatment protocols for demodicosis and sarcoptes infections: an evidence-based review.

Mueller RS.

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. 

Publications discussing the treatment of demodicosis and sarcoptes scabie in the dog and cat are reviewed. Based on the evidence in the literature, amitraz rinses at 0.025-0.06% every 7-14 days, and oral daily ivermectin at 300 micro g kg(-1), milbemycin at 2 mg kg(-1) and moxidectin at 400 micro g kg(-1), respectively, can all be recommended for the treatment of generalized canine demodicosis. Ivermectin and moxidectin should be initiated at lower doses and patients monitored for possible adverse effects during therapy. In dogs and cats, lime sulfur dips have been used successfully.

Publication Types:

  • Review
  • Review, Tutorial

PMID: 15030556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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